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Authors: Kaspar von Greyerz, Silvia Flubacher, Philipp Senn
Type: BOOK - Published: 2013 - Publisher: V&R unipress GmbH
English summary: The volume presents a collection of revised and updated contributions to an international conference held in October 2011 on current issues in historical research on early modern knowledge and science and their connections. It looks at the various ways, in which the 'new science' was embedded in traditions, on the on the hand, and concentrates on the joint role of experts and lay persons in its making, on the other. It highlights in particular the various forms of early modern natural history, scientific treatises in a narrower sense of the term, tradiions going back to antiquity, travel accounts, chronicles, correspondences, naturalia, oral accounts and personal observations, which mirror the dialectic relationship between learned and popular knowledge. The relationship of knowledge and science is investigated in particular in connection with early modern balneology and attempts at systematizing knowledge about animals. German description: Dieser Band widmet sich aktuellen Forschungsaspekten von Wissens- und Wissenschaftsgeschichte, insbesondere den inneren Zusammenhangen von popularem Wissen und Wissenschaft. Einerseits werden Anbindungen der Neuen Wissenschaft an Traditionen in den Blick genommen, andererseits die Teilhabe von Experten und Laien an deren Herausbildung. Die verschiedenen Formate fruhneuzeitlicher Naturgeschichtsschreibung - wissenschaftliche Traktate, antike Uberlieferungen, Reisebeschreibungen, Chroniken, Korrespondenzen, Naturalien, mundliche Erzahlungen oder eigene Beobachtungen - vermitteln einen Eindruck der wechselseitigen Beziehungen zwischen gelehrtem und popularem Wissen. Das Verhaltnis von Wissen und Wissenschaft wird insbesondere an den Beispielen balneologischer und tierkundlicher Wissensbestande genauer analysiert.
Type: BOOK - Published: 2022-05-13 - Publisher: Reclam Verlag
Was unterscheidet wissenschaftliche Hypothesen von pseudowissenschaftlichen Theorien? Und wie geht die wissenschaftliche Forschung vor? Kaum jemand hat die philosophische Diskussion über diese Fragen so stark geprägt wie Popper. Im vorliegenden klassischen Aufsatz fasst er die Entwicklung seiner Beiträge zur Wissenschaftsphilosophie zusammen. Der Band enthält den Text im englischen Original und in der deutschen, von Popper durchgesehenen Standard-Übersetzung sowie einen ausführlichen Kommentar, der den Argumentationsgang und die Wirkung des Textes bis heute nachzeichnet. Die Reihe »Great Papers Philosophie« bietet bahnbrechende Aufsätze der Philosophie: - Eine zeichengenaue, zitierfähige Wiedergabe des Textes (links das fremdsprachige Original, rechts eine neue Übersetzung). - Eine philosophiegeschichtliche Einordnung: Wie dachte man früher über das Problem? Welche Veränderung bewirkte der Aufsatz? Wie denkt man heute darüber? - Eine Analyse des Textes bzw. eine Rekonstruktion seiner Argumentationsstruktur, gefolgt von einem Abschnitt über den Autor sowie ein kommentiertes Literaturverzeichnis. E-Book mit Seitenzählung der Originalpaginierung.
Type: BOOK - Published: 2013-06-01 - Publisher: Transaction Publishers
Few issues cause academics to disagree more than gender and race, especially when topics are addressed in terms of biological differences. To conduct research in these areas or comment favorably on research can subject one to scorn. When these topics are addressed, they generally take the form of philosophical debates. Anthony Walsh focuses upon such debates and supporting research. He divides parties into biologists and social constructionists, arguing that biologists remain focused on laboratory work, while constructionists are acutely aware of the impact of biologists in contested territories. "Science Wars" introduces the ideas motivating the parties and examines social constructionism and its issues with science. He explores arguments over conceptual tools scientists love and constructionists abhor, and he provides a solid discussion of the co-evolution of genes and culture. Walsh then focuses his attention on gender, how constructionists view it, and the neuroscience explanation of gender differences. Moving to race, Walsh looks at how some have tried to bury the concept of race, while others emphasize it. He considers definitions of race--essentialist, taxonomic, population, and lineage--as they have evolved from the time of the Enlightenment to the present. And finally, he attempts to bring the opposing sides together by pointing out what each can bring to a meaningful discussion.
Authors: National Research Council, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences, Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board, Space Studies Board, Committee on Meeting the Workforce Needs for the National Vision for Space Exploration
Type: BOOK - Published: 2006-07-20 - Publisher: National Academies Press
In January 2006, the President announced a new civilian space policy focusing on exploration. As part of its preparations to implement that policy, NASA asked the NRC to explore long-range science and technology workforce needs to achieve the space exploration vision, identify obstacles to filling those needs, and put forward solutions to those obstacles. As part of the study, the NRC held a workshop to identify important factors affecting NASAâ€™s future workforce and its capacity to implement the exploration vision. This interim report presents a summary of the highlights of that workshop and an initial set of findings. The report provides a review of the workforce implications of NASAâ€™s plans, an assessment of science and technology workforce demographics, an analysis of factors affecting the aerospace workforce for both NASA and the relevant aerospace industry, and preliminary findings and recommendations. A final report is scheduled for completion in early 2007.
Authors: National Research Council, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences, Space Studies Board, Committee on Earth Studies
Type: BOOK - Published: 2004-05-21 - Publisher: National Academies Press
Principal-investigator (PI) Earth science missions are small, focused science projects involving relatively small spacecraft. The selected PI is responsible for the scientific and programmatic success of the entire project. A particular objective of PI-led missions has been to help develop university-based research capacity. Such missions, however, pose significant challenges that are beyond the capabilities of most universities to manage. To help NASAâ€™s Office of Earth Science determine how best to address these, the NRC carried out an assessment of key issues relevant to the success of university-based PI-led Earth observation missions. This report presents the result of that study. In particular, the report provides an analysis of opportunities to enhance such missions and recommendations about whether and, if so, how they should be used to build university-based research capabilities.
Type: BOOK - Published: 2015-06-11 - Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Aristotle argued that in theory one could acquire knowledge of the natural world. But he did not stop there; he put his theories into practice. This volume of new essays shows how Aristotle's natural science and philosophical theories shed light on one another. The contributors engage with both biological and non-biological scientific works and with a wide variety of theoretical works, including Physics, Generation and Corruption, On the Soul, and Posterior Analytics. The essays focus on a number of themes, including the sort of explanation provided by matter; the relationship between matter, teleology, and necessity; cosmic teleology; how an organism's soul and faculties relate to its end; how to define things such as sleep, void, and soul; and the proper way to make scientific judgments. The resulting volume offers a rich and integrated view of Aristotle's science and shows how it fits with his larger philosophical theories.
Type: BOOK - Published: 2017-08-09 - Publisher: CRC Press
Every three years, worldwide forensics experts gather at the Interpol Forensic Science Symposium to exchange ideas and discuss scientific advances in the field of forensic science and criminal justice. Drawn from contributions made at the latest gathering in Lyon, France, Interpol's Forensic Science Review is a one-source reference providing a comp