Language: en

Pages: 472

Pages: 472

This unique text collects more than 400 problems in combinatorics, derived distributions, discrete and continuous Markov chains, and models requiring a computer experimental approach. The first book to deal with simplified versions of models encountered in the contemporary statistical or engineering literature, Algorithmic Probability emphasizes correct interpretation of numerical results and visualization of the dynamics of stochastic processes. A significant contribution to the field of applied probability, Algorithmic Probability is ideal both as a secondary text in probability courses and as a reference. Engineers and operations analysts seeking solutions to practical problems will find it a valuable resource, as will advanced undergraduate and graduate students in mathematics, statistics, operations research, industrial and electrical engineering, and computer science.

Language: en

Pages: 240

Pages: 240

This volume contains the proceedings of the AMS Special Sessions on Algorithmic Probability and Combinatories held at DePaul University on October 5-6, 2007 and at the University of British Columbia on October 4-5, 2008. This volume collects cutting-edge research and expository on algorithmic probability and combinatories. It includes contributions by well-established experts and younger researchers who use generating functions, algebraic and probabilistic methods as well as asymptotic analysis on a daily basis. Walks in the quarter-plane and random walks (quantum, rotor and self-avoiding), permutation tableaux, and random permutations are considered. In addition, articles in the volume present a variety of saddle-point and geometric methods for the asymptotic analysis of the coefficients of single-and multivariable generating functions associated with combinatorial objects and discrete random structures. The volume should appeal to pure and applied mathematicians, as well as mathematical physicists; in particular, anyone interested in computational aspects of probability, combinatories and enumeration. Furthermore, the expository or partly expository papers included in this volume should serve as an entry point to this literature not only to experts in other areas, but also to graduate students.

Language: en

Pages: 445

Pages: 445

Algorithmic probability and friends: Proceedings of the Ray Solomonoff 85th memorial conference is a collection of original work and surveys. The Solomonoff 85th memorial conference was held at Monash University's Clayton campus in Melbourne, Australia as a tribute to pioneer, Ray Solomonoff (1926-2009), honouring his various pioneering works - most particularly, his revolutionary insight in the early 1960s that the universality of Universal Turing Machines (UTMs) could be used for universal Bayesian prediction and artificial intelligence (machine learning). This work continues to increasingly influence and under-pin statistics, econometrics, machine learning, data mining, inductive inference, search algorithms, data compression, theories of (general) intelligence and philosophy of science - and applications of these areas. Ray not only envisioned this as the path to genuine artificial intelligence, but also, still in the 1960s, anticipated stages of progress in machine intelligence which would ultimately lead to machines surpassing human intelligence. Ray warned of the need to anticipate and discuss the potential consequences - and dangers - sooner rather than later. Possibly foremostly, Ray Solomonoff was a fine, happy, frugal and adventurous human being of gentle resolve who managed to fund himself while electing to conduct so much of his paradigm-changing research outside of the university system. The volume contains 35 papers pertaining to the abovementioned topics in tribute to Ray Solomonoff and his legacy.

Language: en

Pages: 267

Pages: 267

This book explores a different pragmatic approach to algorithmic complexity rooted or motivated by the theoretical foundations of algorithmic probability and explores the relaxation of necessary and sufficient conditions in the pursuit of numerical applicability, with some of these approaches entailing greater risks than others in exchange for greater relevance and applicability. Some established and also novel techniques in the field of applications of algorithmic (Kolmogorov) complexity currently coexist for the first time, ranging from the dominant ones based upon popular statistical lossless compression algorithms (such as LZW) to newer approaches that advance, complement, and also pose their own limitations. Evidence suggesting that these different methods complement each other for different regimes is presented, and despite their many challenges, some of these methods are better grounded in or motivated by the principles of algorithmic information. The authors propose that the field can make greater contributions to science, causation, scientific discovery, networks, and cognition, to mention a few among many fields, instead of remaining either as a technical curiosity of mathematical interest only or as a statistical tool when collapsed into an application of popular lossless compression algorithms. This book goes, thus, beyond popular statistical lossless compression and introduces a different methodological approach to dealing with algorithmic complexity. For example, graph theory and network science are classic subjects in mathematics widely investigated in the twentieth century, transforming research in many fields of science from economy to medicine. However, it has become increasingly clear that the challenge of analyzing these networks cannot be addressed by tools relying solely on statistical methods. Therefore, model-driven approaches are needed. Recent advances in network science suggest that algorithmic information theory could play an increasingly important role in breaking those limits imposed by traditional statistical analysis (entropy or statistical compression) in modeling evolving complex networks or interacting networks. Further progress on this front calls for new techniques for an improved mechanistic understanding of complex systems, thereby calling out for increased interaction between systems science, network theory, and algorithmic information theory, to which this book contributes.

Language: en

Pages: 468

Pages: 468

The first edition of the monograph Information and Randomness: An Algorithmic Perspective by Crist ian Calude was published in 1994. In my Foreword I said: "The research in algorithmic information theory is already some 30 years old. However, only the recent years have witnessed a really vigorous growth in this area. . . . The present book by Calude fits very well in our series. Much original research is presented. . . making the approach richer in consequences than the classical one. Remarkably, however, the text is so self-contained and coherent that the book may also serve as a textbook. All proofs are given in the book and, thus, it is not necessary to consult other sources for classroom instruction. " The vigorous growth in the study of algorithmic information theory has continued during the past few years, which is clearly visible in the present second edition. Many new results, examples, exercises and open prob lems have been added. The additions include two entirely new chapters: "Computably Enumerable Random Reals" and "Randomness and Incom pleteness". The really comprehensive new bibliography makes the book very valuable for a researcher. The new results about the characterization of computably enumerable random reals, as well as the fascinating Omega Numbers, should contribute much to the value of the book as a textbook. The author has been directly involved in these results that have appeared in the prestigious journals Nature, New Scientist and Pour la Science.

Language: en

Pages: 608

Pages: 608

Modern computing relies on future and emergent technologies which have been conceived via interaction between computer science, engineering, chemistry, physics and biology. This highly interdisciplinary book presents advances in the fields of parallel, distributed and emergent information processing and computation. The book represents major breakthroughs in parallel quantum protocols, elastic cloud servers, structural properties of interconnection networks, internet of things, morphogenetic collective systems, swarm intelligence and cellular automata, unconventionality in parallel computation, algorithmic information dynamics, localized DNA computation, graph-based cryptography, slime mold inspired nano-electronics and cytoskeleton computers. Features Truly interdisciplinary, spanning computer science, electronics, mathematics and biology Covers widely popular topics of future and emergent computing technologies, cloud computing, parallel computing, DNA computation, security and network analysis, cryptography, and theoretical computer science Provides unique chapters written by top experts in theoretical and applied computer science, information processing and engineering From Parallel to Emergent Computing provides a visionary statement on how computing will advance in the next 25 years and what new fields of science will be involved in computing engineering. This book is a valuable resource for computer scientists working today, and in years to come.

Language: en

Pages: 308

Pages: 308

Recent findings in the computer sciences, discrete mathematics, formal logics and metamathematics have opened up a royal road for the investigation of undecidability and randomness in physics. A translation of these formal concepts yields a fresh look into diverse features of physical modelling such as quantum complementarity and the measurement problem, but also stipulates questions related to the necessity of the assumption of continua. Conversely, any computer may be perceived as a physical system: not only in the immediate sense of the physical properties of its hardware. Computers are a medium to virtual realities. The foreseeable importance of such virtual realities stimulates the investigation of an “inner description”, a “virtual physics” of these universes of computation. Indeed, one may consider our own universe as just one particular realisation of an enormous number of virtual realities, most of them awaiting discovery. One motive of this book is the recognition that what is often referred to as “randomness” in physics might actually be a signature of undecidability for systems whose evolution is computable on a step-by-step basis. To give a flavour of the type of questions envisaged: Consider an arbitrary algorithmic system which is computable on a step-by-step basis. Then it is in general impossible to specify a second algorithmic procedure, including itself, which, by experimental input-output analysis, is capable of finding the deterministic law of the first system. But even if such a law is specified beforehand, it is in general impossible to predict the system behaviour in the “distant future”. In other words: no “speedup” or “computational shortcut” is available. In this approach, classical paradoxes can be formally translated into no-go theorems concerning intrinsic physical perception. It is suggested that complementarity can be modelled by experiments on finite automata, where measurements of one observable of the automaton destroys the possibility to measure another observable of the same automaton and it vice versa. Besides undecidability, a great part of the book is dedicated to a formal definition of randomness and entropy measures based on algorithmic information theory. Contents:Algorithmic Physics: The Universe as a ComputerAlgorithmics and Recursive Function TheoryMechanism and DeterminismDiscrete PhysicsSource CodingLattice TheoryExtrinsic-Intrinsic ConceptAlgorithmic InformationComputational ComplexityUndecidabilityClassical ResultsComplementarityExtrinsic IndeterminismIntrinsic IndeterminismWeak Physical ChaosRandomnessRandomness in MathematicsRandom Fractals and 1/f NoiseChaotic Systems are Optimal Analogues of ThemselvesQuantum ChaosAlgorithmic EntropyEpilogue: Afterthoughts, Speculations and Metaphysics Readership: Physicists, computer scientists and mathematicians. keywords:Undecidability;Randomness;Algorithmic Information Theory;Automaton Logic;Quantum Logic;Recursive Function Theory;Discrete Physics;Lattice Theory;Intrinsic Perception;Halting ProblemCristian Calude

Language: en

Pages: 453

Pages: 453

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Algorithmic Learning Theory, ALT 2011, held in Espoo, Finland, in October 2011, co-located with the 14th International Conference on Discovery Science, DS 2011. The 28 revised full papers presented together with the abstracts of 5 invited talks were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions. The papers are divided into topical sections of papers on inductive inference, regression, bandit problems, online learning, kernel and margin-based methods, intelligent agents and other learning models.

Language: en

Pages: 395

Pages: 395

This book constitutes the proceedings of the 26th International Conference on Algorithmic Learning Theory, ALT 2015, held in Banff, AB, Canada, in October 2015, and co-located with the 18th International Conference on Discovery Science, DS 2015. The 23 full papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 44 submissions. In addition the book contains 2 full papers summarizing the invited talks and 2 abstracts of invited talks. The papers are organized in topical sections named: inductive inference; learning from queries, teaching complexity; computational learning theory and algorithms; statistical learning theory and sample complexity; online learning, stochastic optimization; and Kolmogorov complexity, algorithmic information theory.

Language: en

Pages: 400

Pages: 400

Introduces network inspired approaches for the analysis and integration of large, heterogeneous data sets in the life sciences.

Language: en

Pages: 298

Pages: 298

This book includes a collection of papers on both natural (biological) and artificial (computer) approaches to several facets of intelligent behavior from the primary viewpoint of the convergence of computer science and biology in the theory of cognitive science. .

Language: en

Pages: 384

Pages: 384

Discover new theoretical connections between stochastic phenomena and the structure of natural language with this powerful volume! Information Theory Meets Power Laws: Stochastic Processes and Language Models presents readers with a novel subtype of a probabilistic approach to language, which is based on statistical laws of texts and their analysis by means of information theory. The distinguished author insightfully and rigorously examines the linguistic and mathematical subject matter while eschewing needlessly abstract and superfluous constructions. The book begins with a less formal treatment of its subjects in the first chapter, introducing its concepts to readers without mathematical training and allowing those unfamiliar with linguistics to learn the book’s motivations. Despite its inherent complexity, Information Theory Meets Power Laws: Stochastic Processes and Language Models is a surprisingly approachable treatment of idealized mathematical models of human language. The author succeeds in developing some of the theory underlying fundamental stochastic and semantic phenomena, like strong nonergodicity, in a way that has not previously been seriously attempted. In doing so, he covers topics including: Zipf’s and Herdan’s laws for natural language Power laws for information, repetitions, and correlations Markov, finite-state,and Santa Fe processes Bayesian and frequentist interpretations of probability Ergodic decomposition, Kolmogorov complexity, and universal coding Theorems about facts and words Information measures for fields Rényi entropies, recurrence times, and subword complexity Asymptotically mean stationary processes Written primarily for mathematics graduate students and professionals interested in information theory or discrete stochastic processes, Information Theory Meets Power Laws: Stochastic Processes and Language Models also belongs on the bookshelves of doctoral students and researchers in artificial intelligence, computational and quantitative linguistics as well as physics of complex systems.

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