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Advanced Gravitational Wave Detectors

by D. G. Blair
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Release Date: 2012-02-16
Genre: NATURE
Pages: 321 pages
ISBN 13: 0521874297
ISBN 10: 9780521874298
Format: PDF, ePUB, MOBI, Audiobooks, Kindle

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Introduces the technology and reviews the experimental issues; a valuable reference for graduate students and researchers in physics and astrophysics.
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Advanced Gravitational Wave Detectors
Language: en
Pages: 321
Authors: D. G. Blair
Categories: NATURE
Type: BOOK - Published: 2012-02-16 - Publisher: Cambridge University Press

Introduces the technology and reviews the experimental issues; a valuable reference for graduate students and researchers in physics and astrophysics.
Advanced Gravitational Wave Detectors
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Pages: 346
Authors: D. G. Blair
Categories: Astronomical instruments
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Introduces the technology and reviews the experimental issues; a valuable reference for graduate students and researchers in physics and astrophysics.
Injection-locked high power oscillator for advanced gravitational wave observatories
Language: en
Pages: 188
Authors: Lutz Winkelmann
Categories: Science
Type: BOOK - Published: 2012-06-01 - Publisher: Cuvillier Verlag

One approach to detect gravitational waves, which have been postulated by Albert Einstein in his General Theory of Relativity, is based on interferometric measurements of length variations with a large-scale Michelson interferometer. The detection range of these ground-based observatories is currently limited to approx. 15 Megaparsec (Mpc) because of a reduced sensitivity at detection frequencies of 10 Hz – 10 kHz by shot noise. These limitations can be overcome by an output power increase of the detector’s light source, which will enhance the sensitivity by an order of magnitude. Thus, the possibility of detecting a gravitational wave will be raised by a factor of 1000 and the detection range will be increased to 150 Mpc, accordingly. In this work a laser systems is presented, which fulfills the free-running laser requirements on stability and beam quality required by the next generation of gravitational wave detectors for the first time. The developed laser system is based on a two-stage concept, supplemented with an active amplitude and frequency stabilization, which is not part of this work. A 35 W Nd:YVO4 amplifier system with an emission wavelength of 1064 nm represents the frequency reference of the laser system and is used as the seed for an injection-locked high power oscillator. This amplifier, which is based on a Master Oscillator Power Amplifier scheme, is already used in today’s gravitational wave detectors and has been proven to be reliable in long-term operation. The linearly polarized output power of more than 200 W is generated inside the oscillator stage, which consists of four Nd:YAG crystals arranged in an asymmetric ring resonator configuration. To compensate for losses due to thermal birefringence inside the longitudinally pumped laser crystals, an imaging depolarization compensation is used. To optimize the output power of the high power oscillator a numerical model was used to calculate the resonator properties. The results derived from this model combined with experimental data are the basis for the dimensions and mechanical design of the final oscillator setup. For the injection-locking of the two laser sources, the resonator length of the high power oscillator has to be adapted and actively stabilized to be resonant with the incident seed frequency. Changes in temperature of the mechanical components result in length variations which will negatively affect the coupling of both laser systems. To compensate for this thermally induced elongation, various mechanical models have been qualitatively studied and an adequate solution consisting of a combination of adapted materials and active cooling was chosen. Furthermore, an additional slow actuator was included into the laser control, which compensates for room temperature and pressure variation induced distortions. With the developed laser system a constant single-frequency output power of 220 W with more than 165 W in the fundamental mode was obtained. Furthermore, it was possible to fulfill the LIGO VIRGO Scientific Collaboration (LVC) free-running laser requirements for their next generation of gravitational wave detectors (advanced LIGO) in cooperation with the Max-Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics in Hannover. Thus, the installation of the presented laser system in the world largest terrestrial gravitational wave observatories started in spring 2011.
Advanced Interferometric Gravitational-wave Detectors (In 2 Volumes)
Language: en
Pages: 808
Authors: Grote Hartmut
Categories: Science
Type: BOOK - Published: 2019-03-25 - Publisher: World Scientific

The detection of gravitational waves in 2015 has been hailed a scientific breakthrough and one of the most significant scientific discoveries of the 21st century. Gravitational-wave physics and astronomy are emerging as a new frontier in understanding the universe.Advanced Interferometric Gravitational-Wave Detectors brings together many of the world's top experts to deliver an authoritative and in-depth treatment on current and future detectors. Volume I is devoted to the essentials of gravitational-wave detectors, presenting the physical principles behind large-scale precision interferometry, the physics of the underlying noise sources that limit interferometer sensitivity, and an explanation of the key enabling technologies that are used in the detectors. Volume II provides an in-depth look at the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo interferometers, as well as examining future interferometric detector concepts. This two-volume set will provide students and researchers the comprehensive background needed to understand gravitational-wave detectors.
Arm Length Stabilisation for Advanced Gravitational Wave Detectors
Language: en
Pages: 278
Authors: Adam Joseph Mullavey
Categories: Gravitational waves
Type: BOOK - Published: 2012 - Publisher:

Currently the Laser Interferometric Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) is undergoing upgrades from Initial LIGO to become Advanced LIGO. Amongst these upgrades is the addition of a signal recycling mirror at the output port of the interferometer; upgrades of the mirror suspensions to quadruple pendulums; the implementation of less invasive and hence weaker test mass actuators; and the change of readout scheme from a heterodyne based RF readout to a homodyne based DC readout. The DC readout scheme requires the installation of an Output Mode Cleaner (OMC), to stop `junk light' generated in the interferometer from making its way to the DC photodetector where it can limit the sensitivity of the gravitational wave detector. The steering of the interferometer beam into the OMC will be handled by Tip Tilt mirrors designed at the Australian National University. The first core piece of work presented in this thesis was the characterisation of a prototype Tip Tilt mirror, which involved measuring the various eigenmodes of the mirror. -- provided by Candidate.
Aspects of Suspension Design for the Development of Advanced Gravitational Wave Detectors
Language: en
Pages: 144
Authors: Rahul Kumar
Categories: Electromagnetic waves
Type: BOOK - Published: 2013 - Publisher:

Gravitational waves are considered as ripples in the curvature of space-time and were predicted by Einstein in his general theory of relativity. Gravitational waves interact very weakly with matter which makes them very difficult to detect. However, research groups around the world are engaged in building a network of ultra sensitive ground and space based interferometers for the first detection of these signals. Their detection will open a new window in the field of astronomy and astrophysics. The nature of gravitational waves is such that when incident on a particle, they stretch and squeeze the particle orthogonally thus producing a tidal strain. The strain amplitude expected for gravitational waves which may be detected on earth are of the order of hrms ~10-22 to 10-23 (over a frequency range from few Hz to a few kHz). A network of instruments based on the Michelson interferometer design currently exists around the world. These detectors are undergoing a major upgrade and once online by 2015-16 the improved sensitivity and increased sky coverage may lead to the first detection of the gravitational waves signals. The Institute for Gravitational Research in the University of Glasgow in collaboration with the Albert Einstein Institute in Hannover, Golm and the University of Cardiff has been actively involved in the research for the development of instruments and data analysis techniques to detect gravitational waves. This includes construction of a long ground based interferometer in Germany called GEO 600 (upgraded to GEO-HF) having an arm length 600 m and strong involvement in the larger detectors of the LIGO (Laser interferometer gravitational wave observatory) project in USA having arm lengths of 4 km (Operated by MIT, Boston and CALTECH, Pasadena). An upgrade to LIGO called Advanced LIGO (aLIGO) is currently under construction with significant input from the University of Glasgow. Thermal noise is one of the most significant noise sources affecting the sensitivity of the detector at a range of frequencies. Thermal noise arises due to the random fluctuations of atoms and molecules in the materials of the test mass mirrors and suspension elements, and is related to mechanical loss in these materials. The work presented in chapter 3 of this thesis is devoted to the analysis of aspects of mechanical loss and thermal noise in the final stages of the GEO suspension. GEO-600 is currently undergoing an upgrade to GEO-HF targeting sensitivity improvements in the kiloHertz region. However, the planned upgrade requires access to the vacuum tanks enclosing the fused silica suspension system. There is a risk of damaging the suspension, which has led to a repair scenario being developed in Glasgow, to reduce the downtime of the detector. An optimised design of the fused silica fibre has been proposed. A study of mechanical loss has been undertaken through Finite Element Analysis (FEA) modeling techniques. The mechanical loss of the optimised fibre is estimated to be lower than the original GEO fibre by a factor of ~4. In terms of thermal noise performance the optimised fibre gives an improvement of ~1.8. The repair scenario of the monolithic suspension has led to the development of tools and welding procedures. Three prototype suspensions involving metal masses were successfully built, before fabricating the monolithic fused silica suspension in Glasgow. The work in chapter 4 focuses on the theory of photoelasticty and birefringence techniques. The production and use of various forms of polarised light has been discussed. A setup of plane and a circular polariscope using two polarisers and two-quarter wave plates has been shown. The retardation of light due to the birefringence in the sample can be measured using the Tardy method of compensation and a Babinet-Soleil compensator. Finally a discussion on the stress-optic law has shown that the relative stress in a sample can be measured once the retardance is known. The silica fibres in the aLIGO detector would be laser welded using a 100 W CO2 laser. The laser welding would lead to high temperature and development of thermal gradients. This could result in residual thermal stress in fused silica, which could lead to an additional mechanical loss. A study of mechanical and thermal stress induced in fused silica has been discussed in chapter 5 of this thesis. To understand the working of photoelastic techniques learned in chapter 4, a study of mechanical stress was undertaken by applying a load on the sample to induce temporary birefringence. The estimated values of stress showed a good agreement when compared with the theoretical predictions and FEA modelling. Thermal stress was induced in fused silica by applying a 25 W CO2 laser beam for 10 seconds and the relative stress was measured using photoelastic birefringence techniques. Thermal modelling of the stressed sample was performed using the techniques developed in FEA. The experimental values show a good agreement with the estimated 1st principal stress (FEA model) and equivalent stress. A study of thermal stress in fused silica welds has also been presented in chapter 5. Two fused silica samples were welded using CO2 laser welding and the relative stress at different points were measured. The stress in the weld region was measured to be relatively lower than other areas. At a distance of 3 mm away from the weld line the maximum stress was measured which was greater than the stress in the weld region by a factor of ~5. The work discussed in chapter 6 focuses on the study of the suspension thermal noise in aLIGO detector for applying incremental upgrades. 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Language: en
Pages: 202
Authors: Julia Casanueva Diaz
Categories: Science
Type: BOOK - Published: 2018-07-28 - Publisher: Springer

This book focuses on the development and implementation of the longitudinal, angular and frequency controls of the Advanced Virgo detector, both from the simulation and experimental point of view, which contributed to Virgo reaching a sensitivity that enabled it to join the LIGO-Virgo O2 run in August 2017. This data taking was very successful, with the first direct detection of a binary black hole merger (GW170814) using the full network of three interferometers, and the first detection and localization of a binary neutron star merger (GW170817). The second generation of gravitational wave detector, Advanced Virgo, is capable of detecting differential displacements of the order of 10–21m. This means that it is highly sensitive to any disturbance, including the seismic movement of the Earth. For this reason an active control is necessary to keep the detector in place with sufficient accuracy.
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Language: en
Pages:
Authors: Peter G. Murray
Categories: Science
Type: BOOK - Published: 2008 - Publisher:

Einstein's General Theory of Relativity (1916) predicted the existence of gravitational waves. These waves can be considered as fluctuations, or ripples, in the curvature of space-time. Until now there has been only indirect evidence, produced by Hulse and Taylor, of their existence. However, for many years various groups of scientists around the world have been developing ultra-sensitive instruments and techniques which are expected to be capable of detecting gravitational wave signals. The direct detection of these waves will provide new information about the astrophysical processes and sources which produce them. Gravitational radiation is quadropole in nature, producing orthogonal stretching and squeezing of space. The resulting fluctuations in distance are, however, very small, with gravitational waves emmitted from violent astrophysical phenomena expected to produce strains in space of the order ~10 [superscript -22] over relevant timescales. One technique for detecting such strains is based on a Michelson Interferometer. The Institute for Gravitational Research at the University of Glasgow under the leadership of Professor James Hough, has been an active contributor of research targeted towards the detection of gravitational waves for over 35 years. A strong collaboration exists with the Albert-Einstein-Institut in Hanover and Golm, the University of Hanover and the University of Cardiff. This collaboration has developed and constructed a laser interferometer, with arms of 600 m length, in Germany named GEO600. The research presented in this thesis details experiments undertaken on materials and techniques used in current interferometric detectors and for proposed future detectors. The aim of this research is to investigate methods of reducing the levels of mechanical loss associated with the detector optics and thereby minimise the impact of thermal noise on the overall sensitivity of detectors.
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Quantum vacuum fluctuations impose strict limits on precision displacement measurements, those of interferometric gravitational-wave detectors among them. Introducing squeezed states into an interferometer's readout port can improve the sensitivity of the instrument, leading to richer astrophysical observations. In recent years, this technique has been used to improve the sensitivity of the GEO600 [1011 and the Initial LIGO detector at Hanford, WA [102]. Squeezed states could be employed in advanced gravitational-wave detectors, such as Advanced LIGO, to further push the limits of the observable gravitational wave universe. To maximize the benefit from squeezing, environmentally induced disturbances such as back scattering and angular jitter need to be mitigated. Also, optomechanical interactions dictate that the quadrature of the squeezed vacuum state must rotate by 900 at around 50 Hz in order to achieve a broadband sensitivity improvement for Advanced LIGO. In this thesis we describe a series of experiments that lead to a ultra-high vacuum (UHV) compatible, low phase noise, and frequency-dependent squeezed vacuum source required for Advanced LIGO and future gravitational-wave detectors. In order to develop the required technology, two proof-of-principal experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, we built a UHV compatible squeezed vacuum source and homodyne readout and operated them in UHV conditions. We also commissioned a control scheme that achieved a record low 1.30-7 mrad of phase noise. This is a nearly tenfold improvement over previously reported measurements with audio-band squeezed vacuum sources. In the second experiment we used a 2-m-long, high-finesse optical resonator to produce frequency-dependent squeezed quadrature rotation around 1.2kHz. This demonstration of audio-band frequency-dependent squeezing uses technology and methods that are scalable to the required rotation frequency for Advance LIGO, firmly establishing the viability of this technique for application in current and future gravitational-wave detectors. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of these results for squeezing enhancement in Advanced LIGO and beyond.
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Pages: 336
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Type: BOOK - Published: 2017-02-16 - Publisher: World Scientific

LIGO's recent discovery of gravitational waves was headline news around the world. Many people will want to understand more about what a gravitational wave is, how LIGO works, and how LIGO functions as a detector of gravitational waves.This book aims to communicate the basic logic of interferometric gravitational wave detectors to students who are new to the field. It assumes that the reader has a basic knowledge of physics, but no special familiarity with gravitational waves, with general relativity, or with the special techniques of experimental physics. All of the necessary ideas are developed in the book.The first edition was published in 1994. Since the book is aimed at explaining the physical ideas behind the design of LIGO, it stands the test of time. For the second edition, an Epilogue has been added; it brings the treatment of technical details up to date, and provides references that would allow a student to become proficient with today's designs.
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