The Transition To The Market Economy PDF Download eBOOK
Download full The Transition To The Market Economy Book or read online anytime anywhere, Available in PDF, ePub and Kindle. Click Get Books and find your favorite books in the online library. Create free account to access unlimited books, fast download and ads free! We cannot guarantee that book is in the library. READ as many books as you like (Personal use).
The postcommunist transitions to a market economy raised doubts about the political sustainability of an economic reform under democracy. At the same time, they turned the attention to the centrality of political factors in economic policy-making. Latvia has succeeded in proceeding into the consolidation phase of its market reforms while remaining committed to both political pluralism and macroeconomic austerity. Even if politics were not treated as a mere constraint, the basic question is still: how are the government's adjustment choices modified in the political process?
Type: BOOK - Published: 1999-10-14 - Publisher: OECD Publishing
This book provides a coherent analysis of the environmental challenges and achievements in institutional strengthening and policy reform, environmental policy instruments, environmental financing, and environmental management in enterprises in transition countries.
Type: BOOK - Published: 2021-02-09 - Publisher: Princeton University Press
Here, for the first time, two of Russia's leading economists provide an authoritative analysis of the transition to a democratic market economy that has taken place in Russia since 1990. Serguey Braguinsky, a Russian economist with extensive international experience, and Grigory Yavlinsky, leader of the liberal "Yabloko" party and a major public figure in Russia, focus on the institutions that are critical to a successful transition and the economic incentives needed to make these institutions work. Finally, they discuss in detail the specific components of the economic processes that are necessary for economic transition in general and they draw lessons that can be applied to other nations dealing with similar transitions. In 1989, Grigory Yavlinsky became a member of the Commission for Economic Reform and wrote the groundbreaking "500 Day Plan," which outlined the first program of transition to a market economy. Two years later, he co-wrote the program of strategic cooperation between the Soviet government and the West (known as the "Grand Bargain"). Here he and Serguey Braguinsky examine what went wrong with the Russian plan--and what is needed to put the economy back on the road to becoming a fully functioning market economy. The first section of the book presents a new interpretation of the political economy of the socialist state and the incentives and institutions that underpin it, with an emphasis on the present Russian situation. The second part deals with the political economy of "spontaneous transition" and the inefficiencies inherent in economies that lack the organizations and institutions that inhere in established Western democratic economies. In the final section, the authors present a program of actions to put the economic transition in Russia back on track, based on their assessment of the actual current state of both the economy and the government. Their approach is unique in emphasizing organizational evolution at the microeconomic level instead of stressing macroeconomic issues such as money and inflation that are at the heart of most arguments. This is a thoughtful and thought-provoking book and one that will be widely discussed and debated.
Type: BOOK - Published: 1993-01-01 - Publisher: World Bank Publications
Annotation Kyrgyzstan's economic reform program faces more difficulty than those of other countries of the former Soviet Union (FSU). But a reform agenda could lead to significant progress in the medium term. This study examines the country's historic dependence on imports and economic transfers and provides a strategy to speed short-term and medium-term reforms. The strategy would coordinate monetary, fiscal, and trade policies with those of other FSU countries. It would reduce the budget deficit to limit inflation. A plan for increasing hard currency exports outlines free trade agreements that would bolster trade among the countries of the FSU. The study places priority on reforms that promote privatization and suggests which enterprises to privatize quickly. Monetary and fiscal reforms are described for boosting savings and loosening credit. Proposed spending cuts would phase out unproductive enterprises and reduce consumer subsidies while protecting critical social services. The report estimates the financial and technical assistance Kyrgyzstan will need. It suggests a cutoff level for financing so as to stay within the country's capacity for servicing debt.
Type: BOOK - Published: 1997 - Publisher: Edward Elgar Pub
The Baltic countries of Estonia, Lithuania and Latvia were pioneers among the former Soviet republics in implementing political and economic reforms. Starting in 1988, the transition process in these countries has been rapid. This work shows how fiscal and exchange rate policies have contributed.
Type: BOOK - Published: 1994 - Publisher: MIT Press
In Poland's jump to the Market Economy, Jeffrey Sachs provides an insider's analysis of the political events and economic strategy behind the country's swift transition to capitalism and democracy. The greatest challenges to economic reform, Sachs points out, have been primarily political in nature, rather than social or even economic.Sachs reviews Poland's striking progress since the start of the economic reforms three years ago, which he helped to design. He discusses the gains - more than half of employment and GDP is now in the private sector, exports to Western Europe have more than doubled, and economic growth and confidence are returning - as well as the serious problems that remain - high unemployment, a chronic fiscal deficit, the slow pace of privatization of large industrial enterprises, and the fragility of multiparty coalition governments.Sachs points out that leadership is crucial to economic reform in a newly democratic setting, as is the West's timely economic assistance. In Poland's case, the Zloty Stabilization Fund and the two-stage debt cancellation have been essential to keeping the reform program on track.Poland's example has had a powerful impact on reforms throughout the region, including the former Soviet Union, and has done much to dispel the fear that the citizens themselves, allegedly made lazy by decades of socialism, would reject the competitive rigors of a market economy. Overall, Sachs remains firmly convinced of the potential for successful economic reforms. in Poland and the rest of the region.Jeffrey Sachs is Galen L. Stone Professor of International Trade at Harvard University, and has been an economic advisor to more than a dozen countries around the world, including Bolivia, Mongolia, Poland, and Russia.
Type: BOOK - Published: 2012-07-26 - Publisher: Routledge
Celebrating twenty years of transition from socialism to capitalism, this book is designed to be the core textbook for undergraduate courses in transition economics and comparative economic systems. Given the passage of time, Transition Economics: Two Decades On reviews and accounts for the outcomes in the so-called transition economies and, from an academic perspective, takes the reader through developments and issues in the twenty years of transition from plan to market. Treating its subject matter thematically, the book incorporates much of the transition economics literature and evidence that have evolved over the past two decades. In particular, the authors focus on the most important aspects of economic transition, including: The initial conditions at the outset of transition Paradigms and patterns of transition The main transition policies and economic reforms The performance of transition countries and firms The lessons from transition The textbook covers a wide range of both contemporary microeconomic and macroeconomic issues, in over thirty ex-socialist European and Asian countries, including Russia and China. Transition Economics: Two Decades On is more than just a book about a particular part of the world or the transformation that was experienced at a particular time in history. The authors believe that the study of the economics of transition gives the reader an insight into theories, policies, reforms, legacies, institutions, processes and lessons that have application and relevance, beyond the specific transition from plan to market, to other parts of the world and to other times in history.
Type: BOOK - Published: 2007-03-01 - Publisher: International Monetary Fund
Iran has received much attention from a geopolitical and regional standpoint, but its economic challenges have not attracted a similar degree of interest. With a population of 69 million, considerable hydrocarbon resources, a dynamic and entrepreneurial middle class, and a relatively well-educated labor force, Iran's economic potential is considerable. This volume takes stock of critical developments in the Iranian economy in recent years. The study reviews the key issues and policy responses, highlights the nature of the challenges ahead, and draws implications for the next phase of reforms. The authors conclude that major challenges remain, although significant advances have been made in recent years in opening up the economy to international trade and foreign direct investment, encouraging the private sector, removing exchange restrictions, reforming the tax system, and enhancing macroeconomic management.
Type: BOOK - Published: 1998-09-24 - Publisher: OECD Publishing
Egypt is lagging behind other countries in the Mediterranean region in reforming its economy. This book explains why. The authors contend that the Egyptian political system, based to a large extent on discrete patronage and dominated by powerful ...